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the airplane would be back in service before
                                                                       the end of the year, but in a brief statement to
                                                                       reporters before addressing a Senate panel,
                                                                       there was no mention of that. “We have studied
                                                                       both crashes and we know what to fix,” he said.
                                                                       “Once the Max returns to fly, it will be the safest
                                                                       airplane in the sky.”

                                                                       Erring on the Side of Caution
                                                                       There is general consensus among aviation
                                                                       safety agencies around the world that the air-
                                                                       craft shouldn’t be rushed back into service. The
                                                                       FAA, which was the last regulatory agency to
                                                                       ground the aircraft, responded to the NTSC
                                                                       report by saying that  it had not set a timetable
        authorities from Australia, Canada, China, Europe, Singapore,   to approve the plane’s re-entry into service and
        Japan, Brazil, Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, said in its   that “Boeing 737 Max will return to service only
        report, submitted in October, that the FAA and Boeing were at fault   after the FAA determines it is safe.”
        on several fronts. The regulatory agency needs to modernize its   International regulators have indicated that
        aircraft certification process to account for increasingly complex   even if FAA approves the airplane’s return to
        automated systems by ensuring that aircraft incorporate fail-safe   service, they would pursue their own safety
        design principles that don’t rely too heavily on pilot input, the report   analysis of the aircraft before it flies again in
        said.  Boeing was pulled up for its “inadequate communications” to   their skies. Industry experts say cooperation
        the FAA about the MCAS, inadequate pilot training and shortage   among various safety agencies is crucial to
        of technical staff.                                            regain public confidence. Airline chiefs say that
                                                                       Boeing must convince regulators worldwide,
        Trying to Regain Trust                                         and not just the FAA, of the 737’s safety, if it’s
        The company is working hard to earn back the confidence of reg-  to restore faith in the model.
        ulators and operators. Boeing has redesigned the Maneuvering     “Trust in the certification system has been
        Characteristics  Augmentation  System  (MCAS)  software  that   damaged - among regulators, between regula-
                                                                       tors and the industry and with the flying public,”
                                                                       says  IATA  CEO  Alexandre  de  Juniac,  who
                                                                       advocates a coordinated approval of Boeing
                                                                       software fix by various aviation safety agencies
                                                                       around the world. “While Boeing and the US
                                                                       Federal Aviation Administration are at centre
                                                                       stage, the close collaboration of counterpart
                                                                       manufacturers and civil aviation authorities
                                                                       around the world are essential.” The continu-
                                                                       ing lack of unanimity among the regulators has
                                                                       the IATA worried. “With the 737 MAX we are a
                                                                       bit worried ... because we don’t see the normal
                                                                       unanimity among international regulators that
        was at fault in both the crashes, updated operation manuals and  should be the case,” de Juniac told reporters
        sought feedback from pilots of Max operators around the world  in September, in Chicago.
        after providing them simulator sessions with software updates.
        It has conducted over 800 test and production flights with the  FAA Under the Scanner
        new software. In October, the company said that it had added  The delay on the part of the FAA to ground
        flight control computer redundancy to MCAS and three additional  the aircraft after the crashes, and the allegedly
        layers of protection. It has also successfully completed a dry-run  close relationship the regulatory body shares
        of a certification flight test and submitted to the Federal Aviation  with the plane maker, have come in for plenty
        Administration (FAA) a “final software load” and “complete system  of scrutiny in the months since the plan was
        description” of revisions to the plane.                        grounded in March. The Congress, the FBI and
           “We know that the public’s confidence has been hurt by these  Secretary of Transportation Elaine Chao have
        accidents and that we have work to do to earn and re-earn the  called for investigations into the FAA’s certifi-
        trust of the flying public, and we will do that,” Muilenburg said at an  cation process.
        investor conference in New York in May. “We are taking all actions  A particular revelation, that the FAA allows
        necessary to make sure that accidents like those two never happen  employees of aerospace companies, rather
        again.” The company CEO had earlier expressed optimism that  than its own inspectors, to decide on certain

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